batteries are a unique style of batteries. Unlike most
battery styles, they are available in both primary and secondary styles
(nonrechargeable and rechargeable) with a few varieties that cross
between. Lithium batteries are
backup power sources for electronic equipment that can be divided into two
large groups: those providing full backup power to run a piece of
equipment during a power outage; and memory backup, which does not provide
active power to run a price of equipment. Instead it serves as a
long-term power source so that memory components can retain necessary
Lithium batteries consist of a lithium
anode, which is an organic electrolyte that conducts the current, and a
cathode. Lithium cobalt oxide, a material from which lithium can be easily
removed, is the most common cathode compound. When the battery is charged,
lithium ions are driven from the cathode into the anode; when the charge
is removed, the lithium flows back to the cathode.
While there are many styles of lithium primary batteries, they all provide
long-term storage life at room temperature and long operational life over
a wide range of operating temperatures.
Common types of primary lithium batteries include: lithium / sulfur
dioxide (Li/SO2), lithium / thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2),
lithium / manganese dioxide (LiMnO2), lithium / carbon
monofluoride (Li/(CF)n), lithium / copper oxide (LI/CuO), and
lithium / iodine (LiI2), and lithium anode reserve batteries
(including lithium / vanadium pentoxide, lithium / thionyl chloride, and
lithium / sulfur dioxide styles).
Common types of secondary lithium batteries include: lithium / iron
lithium / manganese titanium (LiMnTi), lithium / polymer, lithium-ion
(including lithium / cobalt oxide 2>, lithium
/ nickel oxide 2>, and lithium / manganese oxide
2O4>), lithium-vanadium pentoxide (Li/V2O5),
lithium / manganese dioxide (Li/MnO2), and lithium / titanium
In the United States, standard battery types are given an alphabetical
Generally, the smaller the physical size of the battery, the earlier in
the alphabet it occurs. Standard battery types include: AAAA, AAA,
N, 1/3 AA, 2/3 AA, AA, 1/2 A, 2/3 A, A, 4/5 Cs, Cs, C, 1/2 D, D.
Each of these styles is cylindrical, with positive top that has an
extended terminal, and a negative slightly indented bottom. 9-volt
(9V) batteries are also a standard type, but they are rectangular with
extended positive and negative terminals on their tops.
Nonstandard rechargeable batteries include: prismatic cells, coin or
button cells, sachet cells, lantern batteries, and battery packs.